Rich collection of archeological relics, including tens of thousands objects hand-made before ages, as well, as numerous archive material remaining under the care of Archaeology Department, are the oldest collection of the National Museum in Szczecin. The history of collecting them began nearly 200 years ago and dates back to the beginning of preservation of historic monuments of Pomerania and systematic collecting interests of 19th-century enthusiasts and researchers of Pomeranian antiquities. The storage covers relics accidentally discovered by the inhabitants of Pomerania, collections given by former collectors, and, above all, groups of objects discovered as results of regular excavations.

The archaeological collections include relics discovered in Pomerania, from the oldest objects originating from later periods of the ice age, to newer, from the beginning of the modern times. They are divided into several collections: Palaeolithic and Mesolithic; Neolithic; bronze age and early iron age; pre-Roman and Roman periods, period of Roman influences, migration period and middle ages.